Hyperhomocysteinemia and cerebrovascular diseases in persons of pre-advance age in districts affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant
Introduction. During the implementation of European Union projects in Ukraine «Health and environmental programs associated with the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Preparation, training and coordination of health projects» in 2015 hyperhomocysteinemia was observed in a group of adolescents living in districts bordering the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 75.3 % of cases (among males in 86.5 % of cases). An association between hyperhomocysteinemia and pathological processes in the central nervous system has been established. It is important to determine the causes of this phenomenon, including in pre-conscription persons, which limits their suitability for military service.
The purpose of the study was to find out the reasons for the increase in homocysteine levels in male adolescents living in areas contaminated with radioactive elements as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
Materials and methods. In the course of the research, 228 males aged 8-17 years permanently residing in rural settlements of Ivankovsky and Polessky districts of Kyiv region were examined. The following methods were used: bibliosemantic, analytical, molecular genetic diagnostics, statistical.
Results. The examined subjects showed genetic changes affecting the activity of the main enzyme of the folate cycle (FC) - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. In particular, the T risk allele of the MTHFR:677 genetic polymorphism was identified in 48.7 % of cases, its homozygous T/T MTHFR:677 variant was found in 7.5 % of cases, and compound heterozygosity for CT677/AC1298 alleles of the MTHFR gene was recorded in 18.9 %. These genetic changes in the FC predispose to impaired functioning of the FC and an increase in the level of homocysteine in the blood, which is the basis for the development of pathological processes affecting vital organs and systems. Abnormal homocysteine metabolism can also be associated with compound heterozygosity of CT MTHFR:677/ AG MTRR:66, AG MTR:2756/AG MTRR:66, AG MTR:2756/CT MTHFR:677 polymorphisms recorded respectively in 21.9 %, 18.0 %, 14.9 % of cases.
Conclusions. The factor that provokes the phenotypic realization of the genetic defects of the FC in the form of hyperhomocysteinemia can be both radioactive elements and other causes of stressful situations. Given that mutations in the FC genes lead to a state of hyperhomocysteinemia, is a risk factor for inappropriate behavior of young people in stressful situations, which limits their suitability for military service, it is advisable to take into account the genetic system of the folate cycle and homocysteine levels in conscripts. their health when called up for military service.
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