Characteristics of activities of external pilots of unmanned aircraft systems and their occupationally important qualities: theoretical and practical aspects
Inntoduction. The available information on the occupational requirements for operators of unmanned aircraft complexes (systems) (UAS) and their psychophysiological qualities that allow them to operate these vehicles in normal and extreme situations is limited, fragmented and unsystematic. All these reasons stimulate the detailed development and refinement of the list of occupationally important qualities and psychophysiological criteria for the occupational suitability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) pilots required for the successful performance of their activities.
The purpose of this work is to search in the modern literature for a list of occupationally important qualities of UAV pilots and adequate methods of occupational psychophysiological selection.
Materials and methods. Using the methods of systematic, bibliosemantic and retrospective analysis, scientific publications on the list of occupationally important qualities of UAS, UAVs pilots and adequate methods of occupational psychophysiological selection have been studied. For this, a research was made for available sources of information from 1982 to 2020, which concerned the characteristics of the occupational activities of operators of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aircraft complexes (systems), drones. The characteristics of the activity of external pilots of UAVs and their occupationally important qualities have been studied. The classification of internal and external harmful factors in the occupational activities of the personnel of UAVs pilots and the characteristics of their occupationally important qualities, which were mentioned in the available publications have been generalized.
Results. A preliminary analysis of the literature data to determine the occupational suitability of UAV pilots. A generalized list of psychological and psychophysiological indicators that can be used to determine the degree of occupational suitability of such pilots is proposed. This list can be used to determine eligibility criteria. World experience shows that the complex and responsible work of UAVs pilots requires not only the initial selection for this work, but also constant monitoring of psychophysiological characteristics of them to maintain their health, ensure high efficiency and reliability in combat missions, increase occupational longevity.
Conclusions. An analysis of the occupational activities of operators of UAVs pilots and identified the main functional responsibilities and stress of these individuals. The classification of internal and external harmful factors in the occupational activity of the personnel of UASs pilots has been offered. The list of psychological and psychophysiological occupationally important qualities of UAVs pilots that ensure the success of occupational activities and are necessary for occupational selection of personnel for the management of unmanned aerial vehicles and monitoring of their psychophysiological qualities, as well as qualities that hinder the effectiveness of occupational activities. A set of methodological tools for performance of occupational psychophysiological selection of UASs pilots has been identified.
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