Acute radiation disease: contribution of Ukrainian scientists (notice two)
RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Scientific schools of Rostislav Evgenievich Kavetsky and Vladimir Grigorovich Nikolaev
The purpose. To consider the contribution of scientists from the Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology named after R.E. Kavetsky onto the doctrine of the biological effect of ionizing radiation, the study of the pathogenesis of acute radiation diseases caused by external and internal radiation, the features of the clinical course of the disease in experimental animals with these types of radiation. To highlight the issues of treatment of acute radiation sickness, in particular, the use methods of extracorporeal detoxification.
Materials and methods. It was used historical, bibliosemantic methods in order to fully disclose the issues of the formation and development of radiation medicine, in particular, topical issues of acute radiation disease.
Results. The main investigations of scientists at the Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology named after R.E. Kavetsky National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are analyzed. These researches concerned the studies of the biological effect of radioactive isotopes in both indicator and lethal doses, comparative studies of the effect of external and internal radiation, the features of the clinical course of acute radiation sickness and morphological differences with these types of radiation.The genesis of the formation of modern concepts regarding the treatment of endogenous intoxication in acute radiation disease has been investigated.
Conclusions. The idea was expressed that the famous Ukrainian scientist R.E. Kavetsky was not only the founder of the scientific school of experimental oncologists, but also the founder of the scientific school of medical radiology. It has been shown that small doses of ionizing radiation cause early reactions of the organism in experimental animals, in particular of the hematopoietic system, which do not differ in any way from the changes caused by large doses of radiation. A comparative study of the effects of external and internal irradiation revealed the features of the clinical course and morphological differences in acute radiation disease Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology named after R.E. Kavetsky, in particular, the team of the Department of Physicochemical Mechanisms of Sorption Detoxification, in cooperation with other scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, has become a leader in the search for new highly effective methods of sorption therapy for acute radiation disease the effectiveness of which has been proven in the treatment of victims of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
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