Comprehensive assessment of the healthy lifestyle basic components among Navy Servicemen of the Armed Forces of Ukraine with cardiovascular diseases and chronic therapeutic pathology
The purpose is to comprehensively assess the medical and social aspects of the main components of a healthy lifestyle in the Navy servicemen of the Armed Forces of Ukraine with cardiovascular diseases and chronic therapeutic pathology to identify the most important risks and develop on this basis focused measures to reduce them.
Materials and methods. Medical and social aspects of the main components of a healthy lifestyle among Navy servicemen of the e Armed Forces of Ukraine have been analyzed based on the results of a sociological survey using a specially developed questionnaire. The questionnaire included 43 requests, which were summarized in some information blocks: general information, awareness of a healthy lifestyle, prevalence and causes of bad habits, analysis of lifestyle (diet, physical activity, work and rest), self-assessment of health and a table for determining satisfaction with different aspects of life by the following criteria: working conditions and career prospects, housing and living conditions, family and material well-being, leisure and medical care, social and legal protection, etc. A questionnaire was used to conduct a questionnaire survey of 128 servicemen of the Navy servicemen who underwent an in-depth medical examination in 2019. The study group included males, average age - 38.5 ± 0.44, with 19.68 ± 0.43 years of service in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Methods were used: medical and sociological, medical-statistical, system analysis.
Results. The medical and social aspects of the main components of a healthy lifestyle among Navy servicemen of the Armed Forces of Ukraine based on the results of a poll using a specially designed questionnaire has been considered. A comprehensive analysis of the survey results made it possible to distinguish the following three groups: Group 1 - patients with HSC with AH (n = 44, average age 40 ± 0.72 years, length of service 22.5 ± 0.16 years); Group 2 - servicemen with chronic therapeutic pathology without concomitant hypertension (n = 43, average age 38.7 ± 0.82, length of service 21.1 ± 0.76); Group 3 - practically healthy (n = 41, average age 35.3 ± 0.62 g, length of service 17.01 ± 0.59 years). Groups 1 and 2 in terms of age and length of service did not significantly differ from the group of practically healthy people (p> 0.05).
According to the results of the study, a fairly high awareness of the servicemen of the three groups on healthy lifestyles was revealed (86.4% 88.4% and 95.1% with p> 0.05). Among the reasons that impede the introduction of healthy lifestyle, the respondents of all groups identified habits and material difficulties. Noteworthy is the low level of motivation of the 1st and 2nd groups, which is 3.2 and 2.3 times (6.8% and 9.3%, respectively) significantly lower (p <0.05) compared to the level motivation in the 3rd group (22.0%). The respondents quite unanimously consider the need to introduce material incentives (81.8%, 79.1% and 70.1%, respectively, with p> 0.05) for servicemen who do not have bad habits and maintain a high level of health. Among the respondents of the 1st and 2nd groups, a significantly high prevalence of smoking was established (56.8% and 58.1% versus 34.1%, respectively, at p <0.01). They follow the diet less (34.1% and 37.2% versus 51.2%, with p <0.05) and have insufficient physical activity (61.4%, 65.1% versus 82.9%, with p <0.01). Normal sleep lasting 7-8 hours was noted only by 11.4% of respondents in the 1st group, 13.9% in the 2nd and 21.9% in the 3rd groups (p> 0.05). The majority of respondents characterized the level of psychoemotional load at the workplace as high (63.2% of respondents in the 1st group p <0.01, 55.8% in the 2nd group p <0.05 versus 39.0% of the 3rd groups). Most of the respondents in the three groups have common problems in living conditions, namely: lack of housing, unsatisfactory living conditions, low level of material well-being and insufficient level of social and legal protection. The data obtained confirm the need to carry out, first of all, purposeful organizational and medical-organizational measures aimed at the primary prevention of diseases and the formation of healthy lifestyles among the servicemen of the Navy of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.Conclusions. It was found that for the servicemen of the Navy of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the typical factors that reduce the level of a healthy lifestyle are a violation of the diet, work and rest, a high level of bad habits and an insufficient level of physical activity. It was revealed that in order to improve the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle, according to a sociological survey, the introduction of material incentives for military personnel prevails over the use of administrative measures. The majority of respondents in the 1st and 2nd groups underestimate the impact on health of lifestyle (43.2% and 46.5%, with p> 0.05) and ecology (6.8% and 7.0%, with p > 0.05), exaggerating the role of hereditary factors (31.8% and 30.2%, with p> 0.05) and medical services (18.2% and 16.30%, with p <0.05). It was found that in servicemen with HSC and chronic pathology, high awareness of the requirements of healthy lifestyle and low compliance with these requirements (p>0.05), low level of motivation (p<0.05), non-compliance with diet (p<0.05) , irrational and unbalanced nutrition (p>0.05), low physical activity (p<0.01), non-compliance with the work and rest regimen (p<0.01), a tendency to long-term experience of negative emotions ( <0.001), a high level of psychoemotional load at the workplace (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), a high prevalence of bad habits (smoking (p<0.01) and alcohol consumption (p> 0.05)) and such risk factors as overweight (p<0.05) in military personnel with chronic pathology and obesity (p<0.001) in military personnel with HSC, which increases the risk of complications in these individuals.
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